Colitis

Colitis:  Inflammation of the colon.  Amebic colitis - colitis due to Entamoeba histolytica; amebic dysentery. Granulomatous colitis -transmural colitis with the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Mucous colitis - a chronic anti-inflammatory disease marked by excessive secretion of mucus and disordered colonic motility, with colic, constipation, and or diarrhea with passage of mucus. Regional colitis  - Segmental colitis  - transmural or granulomatous inflammatory disease of the colon; regional enteritis involving the colon.  It may be associated with ulceration, strictures, or fistulas.  Transumural colitis  - inflammation of the full thickness of the bowel, rather than mucosal and submucosal disease, usually with the formation of noncaseating granulomas.  It may be confined to the colon, segmentally or diffusely, or may be associated with small bowel disease (regional enteritis).  Clinically, it may resemble ulcerative colitis, but the ulceration is often longitudinal or deep, the disease is often segmental, stricture formation is common, and fistulas, particularly in the perineum, are a frequent complication. Ulcerative colitis - chronic ulceration in the colon, chiefly of the mucosa and submucosa, clinically manifested by cramping abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and loose discharges of blood, pus, and mucus with scanty fecal particles.

Colitis is an infectious ailments of the lower intestine, such  disorders  such as:  ulcerative colitis, infectious diarrhea, radiation colitis, Crohn's disease, and chronic ulcerative proctitis.  Ischemic colitis is an intestinal disorder that usually affects the elderly.  One of the most serious and chronic colitis is ulcerative colitis, which needs close medical attention.  It is characterize with attacks of bloody stools or diarrhea that may be painful, the colon develops tiny ulcers and other inflammations that flare up periodically.  In Crohn's disease, it can happen anywhere within the intestinal tract, but most commonly occurs in the colon.  It may be associated with various other disorders from eye problems to arthritis in the arm and leg joints to skin rashes.  Attacks of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease tend to recur, and the risk of colorectal cancer increases rapidly 8 to 10 years after onset.  With regular medical treatment, this disease is rarely fatal, and most patients can lead fairly normal lives with fewer, less severe attacks.  Symptoms range from several levels of severity. (see symptoms below)

Cause:  Exact cause is unknown.  Bacterial and parasitic infections, such as salmonella poisoning has been known to cause colitis.  Temporary colitis like symptoms has been link with patient who have taken certain antibiotics, such as ampicillin , ampicillin, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, lincomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and or trimethoprim.  When the medication is discontinued, the symptoms tend to disappear.

Symptoms:

Mild case:  Up to 4 loose stools per day, possibly bloody, which may temporally relieve abdominal pain.
Cramping - mild

Moderate case:  Abdominal pain, 4 to 8 bloody stools daily.
Low grade fever
Weight loss

Severe case:  6 or more bloody stools or diarrhea daily and during the night.
Fever (up to 103 degrees F or even higher)
Weight loss
Symptoms of anemia

Treatment:

Hospitalization may be needed

Controlling inflammation and stopping diarrhea

In severe cases surgery may be needed to remove the colon

When stable, your doctor may prescribed high fiber lactose free diet

Medication therapy to keep colitis under control

*  Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis are among the most serious systemic disorders.  If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications in other body systems and may be potentially fatal.  If you have any of the above symptoms, prompt diagnosis and appropriate medical treatment is important.  Diarrhea in infants and young children is always a serious matter and must be treated immediately.  Seek medical treatment  promptly.

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