Trichomoniasis: This protozoal infection of the lower genitourinary tract affects about 15% of sexually active females and 10% of sexually active males. The infecting agent is Thrichomonas vaginalis. Most commonly spread by sexual contact, trichomoniasis may also be spread by contaminated douche equipment or moist washcloths, or if the mother is infected, via vaginal delivery. In females, the condition may be acute or chronic. Recurrence of trichomoniasis is minimized when sexual partners are treated concurrently.
Risk factors for infection include bacterial overgrowth, pregnancy, exudative vaginal or cervical lesions, frequent douching and use of oral contraceptives.
Usually patients experience no symptoms.
Acute infection may produce variable signs and symptoms; Women may experience a vaginal discharge (gray or greenish yellow and possibly profuse, frothy, and bad smell to it (malodorous), patient may experience "strawberry spots" on the cervix, severe itching, redness, swelling, tenderness, dyspareunia (difficult or painful intercourse), dysuria (painful urination) and urinary frequency. Females may also experience spotting after intercourse (postcoital), menorrhagia (excessive menstruation), or dysmenorrhea (Painful menstruation).
Men may develop transient mild to severe urethritis, dysuria, or urinary frequency.
Metronidazole by mouth is given to both sexual partners, prognosis is excellent.
Females, a mild douche with a vinegar and water solution may help acidify vaginal pH, consult your doctor.
* do not douche before being examined for trichomoniasis, and or pelvic exams.
For pregnant patient, your doctor may prescribe clotrimazole vaginal tablets/cream at bedtime for 7 days. * As with all medication use as prescribe by your doctor.
After treatment, both sexual partners need to have a follow up examination by your doctor to check for residual signs of infection.
To prevent reinfection during treatment, abstain from intercourse, or use condoms.
* Important - When using metronidazole treatment, abstain from alcoholic beverages, because alcohol consumption may provoke a disulfiram - type reaction (confusion, headache, cramps, vomiting, and convulsions). Using metronidazole may turn urine dark brown.
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